With the COVID-19 outbreak, the population was suddenly forced to “stay at home”. Although research suggests that social isolation affects mental health, reactions may vary depending on individuals. This study aimed to identify personality profiles, and examine whether these profiles were associated with affective and cognitive outcomes. Participants filled in an online questionnaire during the lockdown in France (N = 430). Based on measures of individuals’ preference for solitude, extraversion, emotional stability and openness, a latent profile analysis revealed three profiles: “Affiliation”, “Emotionally Stable Lonely” and “Emotionally Unstable Lonely”. Results showed that individuals with an “Emotionally Unstable Lonely” profile expressed higher stress and anxiety, and performed better on a divergent creative thinking task. By contrast, those with an “Emotionally Stable Lonely” profile expressed a lower level of loneliness, and performed better on a convergent creative thinking task. These findings reveal the importance of personality profiles in psychological reactions during lockdowns.